你知道吗…你可以通过看鱼鳞来判断鱼的年龄?每个刻度都包含同心圆,随着鱼的生长而增加…有点像树!


Andy SchofieldHead of Fish

Why are fisheries important?

我们海岸线周围的水域有价值很高的鱼类资源,通过为当地居民和游客提供商业捕鱼和休闲垂钓机会,支持当地社区。这些活动为直接参与捕鱼的人以及商店和餐馆等一系列间接受益的企业创造了就业机会。

Our coastal fisheries are also ecologically important,forming a key part of ecosystems and food chains.Many types of fish provide a food source for other species;桑迪尔斯例如,are predated upon by other fish,比如海鳟和鲈鱼,还有海鸟。

一些鱼类因其在国家或国际上的稀缺性而受到额外的法律保护。These examples include the migratory Twaite and Allis shad and river and sea lamprey.

How do we protect them?

英国周围潮汐水域的泻湖选址,或世界,需要详细考虑它们对鱼类种群的影响。此初步评估涉及收集信息和证据,并提出一系列问题,包括:

What type of fish are living in the area and what is their population structure?  This will include the diversity of species and the presence of different life-stages (fish of same species but with different ages).

Where they are living in relation to the proposed lagoon site?For example,是像普拉斯这样的海底鱼类,or fish that swim higher in the water such as herring.

他们什么时候出现在这个地区?Some fish are only present for certain periods of the year or even part of the day if they are diurnal.

Why the fish are present?  Some fish are migratory,比如鲑鱼,lamprey or shad,and may be migrating past the Swansea Bay Tidal Lagoon site en-route to nearby rivers where they spawn.Other species,比如鲱鱼,are believed to spawn in the area of the proposed Swansea Bay Tidal Lagoon.

How are fish affected by lagoons?

Whilst some marine fish species may be resident all year round,其他的季节性更强,只出现在冬季月份(鳕鱼)或夏季(鲈鱼)。一些鱼类将生活在沿海水域或在其生命周期的一部分通过它们,其剩余的生命将被消耗在以海水为食的淡水集水区中,这些鱼类包括迁徙鲑鱼,因此,我们需要考虑对海洋和淡水中这些物种的潜在影响,并确保泻湖的设计将影响降至最低,并在我们认为发生更重大影响的地方提供适当的补偿。亚博88.com

Whilst the construction of tidal lagoons may impact on fish spawning,苗圃和喂养区,the greatest risk is often perceived to be that of entrainment in the turbines.我们通过模拟鱼类与发电结构的接触率以及鱼类通过运行涡轮机时的伤害率来评估对鱼类种群的影响。我们考虑到鱼类进入泻湖对涨潮的影响,以及在退潮期间再次离开的影响。

Individual Based Modelling (IBM) is used to predict encounter rates of fish and the lagoon.This method considers the movements of the fish,它们对某些海洋特征和迁徙鱼类的反应,它们能够跟随自己家乡河流的气味(或嗅觉)轨迹。

Fish can only physically enter a lagoon via the turbines during flood generation (for approximately one third of time).它们将无法与通过涡轮机流出的EBB发电流(大约三分之一的时间)对抗。Fish will not be able to enter or exit the lagoon during the ‘holding period' when the lagoon is effectively closed off from the sea outside (approximately one third of time).  Fish may be able to enter and exit the lagoon via any shipping locks and sluices (where these are included in the 亚博88.comdesign).

利用一个名为“撞锤”的模型预测涡轮机中鱼类的伤害。This model considers the water conditions within the turbine that could cause harm to fish.据预测,只有很小比例的鱼类会在斯旺西受到影响。They can be injured internally and externally due to adverse pressure change,水的运动(称为剪应力)explosion of air bubbles (known as cavitation) and physical collisions with structures such as blades.

如果我们有影响呢?

斯旺西的模拟结果表明,总体而言,very low fish mean annual mortality rates are predicted using the IBM and STRIKER approach,大多数物种的比率小于1%,所有物种的比率小于3%。These annual mortality rates are well within the natural annual variation that occurs within fish stocks of the species concerned.我们将设法抵消对年死亡率超过2%的物种的任何影响。

Such information is vital so that we can model the likely impacts of the lagoon construction and operation on the existing fish stocks and take action to reduce our impact.We will do this through:

缓解– re亚博88.comdesigning elements of the lagoon so that fewer fish are harmed.示例:从4叶片定速涡轮机移到3叶片变速涡轮机,这减少了我们的天鹅海泻湖对鲱鱼和鲱鱼的预测影响,or provision of new spawning areas to replace those lost.

抵销– where we predict a significant impact on fish species we will try and make improvements elsewhere which will produce a commensurate number of fish to those lost.

增强– having completed our mitigation and offsetting,我们将考虑超越需求,从而实现整体改进。

How do we know if our modelling predictions are accurate?

We are already actively monitoring the fish populations around the Bristol Channel and Severn Estuary using various netting techniques in seasonal surveys.

已经对一些鱼类进行了无线电标记和跟踪,为了进一步了解鱼类的行为,计划进行更多的无线电标记和跟踪。尤其是迁徙鱼类,当它们在海水和邻近的河流流域之间移动时。

正在试用高科技声纳照相机,以便在涡轮机上使用它们来评估涡轮机外壳结构附近的鱼类行为。在运行中的涡轮机中,我们建议使用电子探测器(“传感鱼”)来记录鱼类穿过结构时的流动情况。

如果我们不建造泻湖呢?

我们必须从某处发电。If lagoons don't provide the necessary power,then we will remain reliant on the burning of fossil fuels,比如煤,to generate power.  This comes at a cost to our fisheries.

Coal and other traditional power stations require vast quantities of cooling water which suck huge numbers of fish through intakes and kills millions of fish each year.

燃烧化石燃料有助于有害排放物,尤其是气候变化和陆地水体酸化。Climate change effects can include more frequent and larger flood events,potentially washing out fish eggs,to warmer,drier conditions leading to dried-up river beds or temperatures at which certain species cannot survive.

提供煤炭,例如,has historically left an 亚博 官网正规吗environmental and economic legacy with at least 17 minewater treatment systems still being paid for in Wales alone and poor water quality from abandoned mines resulting in failing Water Framework Directive Waterbodies.


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